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非谓语动词之分词

2021-06-08 编辑 : 哈尔滨纳斯达克国际英语
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1.分词的性质:
具有形容词性质,可以在句中担任表语、定语、宾补、状语,现在分词表示主动,且动作在进行:过去分词表示被动,或动作已完成。

2.分词的形式:
例:             write (vt)                                            rise (vi)
                  主动语态           被动语态                         主动         过去分词
时态
现在时        writing               being written                 rising         risen
完成时        having written    having been written        having risen   


3.用法:

(1)定语    分词置于被修饰名词前
                 分词短语于置于被修饰名词后
      a sleeping baby = a baby who is sleeping
      a running dog = a dog which is running
      a broken glass = a glass which is broken
      a beaten team = a team which is beaten(beaten 是被打败的意思)
     This is the problem discussed at the last meeting.
     The problem being discussed is very important.

(2)表语:
      The book is interesting.
      He is interested in the book.
      The news is exciting.
      He feels excited.

(3)宾语补足语:
     When I woke up, I found my mother sitting beside me.
     I'd like to have this package weighed.
掌握精髓:动词不定式作宾语表示动作的全过程,而现在分词作宾补表示动作正在进行;过去分词表示被动概念。

(4)状语:(以下例句值得一背!)
① If you turn to the left, you'll find the station.
→ Turning to the left, you'll find the station.
② As I didn't receive her letter, I called her up by telephone.
→ Not receiving her letter, I called her up by telephone.
③ While I was walking to school yesterday morning, I met a friend.
→ Walking to school yesterday morning, I met a friend.
④ When she was asked it she had any bad habit, she answered that she was a heavy smoker.
→ Asked if she had any bad habit, she answered that she was a heavy smoker.

你知道吗?注意:在运用此类句型时主语前后要保持一致。
① When school was over, the boys went home.
→ Being over, the boys went home. ×
School being over, the boys went home. √
② As my homework has been done, I have nothing else to do.
→ My homework having been done, I have nothing else to do.
③ If weather permits, I'll start tomorrow.
→ Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow.


4.分词的时态:
现在分词一般时表示此动作与主句谓语动词同时发生。
现在分词完成时表示此动作在主句谓语动词之前发生。
Entering the room, he saw he. (几乎同时)
Not having tried his best, he failed in the exam. (分词动作在前)

5.语态:现在分词一般时被动表动作正在被进行,完成时被动强调分词所表示的动作先被完成。
The ships being loaded and unloaded belong to us.
Having been warned of typhoon, the fishermen sailed for the nearest harbor.(渔民先被告知而后驶向港口)


上一篇:不定代词及不定副词

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