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英语语法知识 定语从句(1)

2021-06-08 编辑 : 哈尔滨纳斯达克国际英语
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定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

关系副词有:when, where, why等。

18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

1)who, whom, that

这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:

Is he the man who/that wants to see you?

他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.

他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:

They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that

它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:

A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)

The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

1)when, where, why

关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:

There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

2)that代替关系副词

that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:

His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词

方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:

This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。)

(错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.

(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

答案:例1 D,例2 A

例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.

例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.

在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。

而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。


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